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Ed by the current ones, highlight a major role for galectin-1 in GBM invasiveness. The characteristic malignant phenotype of glioblastoma extends beyond aggressive invasion. This tumor develops resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy, it promotes neoangiogenesis, and it seems to benefit from immune privilege. Interestingly, galectin-1 may play a role in promoting each of these phenotypes. While gal
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Ase) makes it a resource for identification, as well as preclinical targeting, of novel mediators of glioma invasion. Galectin-1 was identified in this manner, and has proven in vitro and in vivo to be important in the migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. Previous work suggests an even greater role of galectin-1 in GBM neoangiogenesis, chemo- and radioresistence, and immune privilege. Tar
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Mas. Sem Oncol 2003, 30:10?4. 4. McGirt MJ, Chaichana KL, Gathinji M, Attenello FJ, Than K, Olivi A, Weingart JD, Brem H, Quinones-Hinojosa AR: Independent association of extent of resection with survival in patients with malignant brain astrocytomas. J Neurosurg 2009, 110:156?62.Toussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/11/1/Page 11 of5.6.7. 8. 9.10.11.
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Activation of ERK with induction of apoptosis by various chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents [39-41]. In fact, oxidants have been shown to activate ERK by taking over the growth factor receptor signaling pathways [42-46]. Moreover, ERK may get activated in response to DNA damage and can phosphorylate p53 in vitro [23,24,47-49]. We found that exposure of Capan-2 or BxPC-3 cells with apoptos
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Tin S, Mathieu V, Kiss R, Lefranc F: Galectins and gliomas. Brain Pathol 2010, 20:17?7. Mariani L, Beaudry C, McDonough WS, Hoelzinger DB, Kaczmarek E, Ponce F, Coons SW, Giese A, Seiler RW, Berens ME: Death-associated protein 3 (Dap3) is overexpressed in invasive glioblastoma cells in vivo and in glioma cell lines with induced motility phenotype in vitro. Clin Cancer Res 2001, 7:2480?489. Mariani
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Ing glioblastoma cells to apoptosis. J Clin Oncol 2005, 23: 2411?422. Paulus W, Baur I, Beutler AS, Reeves SA: Diffuse brain invasion of glioma cells requires beta 1 integrins. Lab Invest 1996, 75:819?26. Uhm JH, Gladson CL, Rao JS: The role of integrins in the malignant phenotype of gliomas. Front Biosci 1999, 4:D188 199. Lipinski CA, Tran NL, Bay C, Kloss J, McDonough WS, Beaudry C, Berens ME, L
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Lioblastoma cell subpopulations with amplified EGFR. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2004, 39:29?6. Simone NL, Bonner RF, Gillespie JW, Emmert-Buck MR, Liotta LA: Lasercapture microdissection: opening the microscopic frontier to molecular analysis. Trends Genet 1998, 14:272?76. Ruebel KH, Leontovich AA, Jin L, Stilling GA, Zhang H, Qian X, Nakamura N, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Lloyd RV: Patterns of gene
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Tion into the brain through modifications to the actin cytoskeleton and the levels of expression of small GTPases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002, 61:585?97. Camby I, Decaestecker C, Lefranc F, Kaltner H, Gabius HJ, Kiss R: Galectin-1 knocking down in human U87 glioblastoma cells alters their gene expression pattern. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005, 335:27?5. Jung TY, Jung S, Ryu HH, Jeong YI, Jin

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