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In brain [85-88]; 2) cause cytotoxicity and insulin resistance [83,88]; and 3) are increased in brains with neurodegeneration [85,89-91]. We measured mRNA levels of ceramide synthases (CER), UDP glucose ceramide glycosyltransferase (UGCG), serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC), and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases (SMPD), due to their demonstrated relevance to neurodegeneration [45,83]. HFD feeding
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Ysiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302(2):C383?91. 68. Sachdev U, Cui X, Hong G, Namkoong S, Karlsson JM, Baty CJ, et al. High mobility group box 1 promotes endothelial cell angiogenic behavior in vitro and improves muscle perfusion in vivo in response to ischemic injury. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55(1):180?1.Yang et al. Cell Bioscience (2015) 5:Page 10 of69. Kang R, Livesey KM, Zeh HJ, Loze MT, Tang D. HMGB1: a
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Urs), rats were sacrificed by i.p. injection of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg). Blood and cerebella were harvested immediately. Blood or serum was used to measure glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels, as previously described [45,46]. Cerebella were harvested for histopathological, biochemical, and molecular studies. For histopathology, tissue samples were immersion f
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N.edu 1 Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903, USAnoted that the striking increases in AD and PD mortality rates followed sharply increased consumption of processed foods, use of preservatives, and demand for nitrogen-containing fertilizers [4]. A common theme resonating from these unnecessary lifestyle trends is that we have inadver
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Antibody (1:10000) and Amplex Red soluble fluorophore [79]. Amplex Red fluorescence was measured (Ex 579/Em 595) in a SpectraMax M5 microplate reader (Molecular Devices Corp., Sunnyvale, CA). Negative control reactions included substitutions with nonrelevant primary or secondary antibodies, and omission of primary or secondary antibody. Immunoreactivities were normalized to protein content as dete
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In brain [85-88]; 2) cause cytotoxicity and insulin resistance [83,88]; and 3) are increased in brains with neurodegeneration [85,89-91]. We measured mRNA levels of ceramide synthases (CER), UDP glucose ceramide glycosyltransferase (UGCG), serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC), and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases (SMPD), due to their demonstrated relevance to neurodegeneration [45,83]. HFD feeding
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S performed using the ABC method, and revealed with DAB (brown precipitate)-see Experimental Procedures. Sections were lightly counterstained with Hematoxylin (blue) to help reveal the tissue architecture. Cerebellar layers: ml = molecular layer; pc = Purkinje cell layer; gc = granule cell layer; wm = white matter. Note focal pc loss in A2, and large zones of pc loss in A3 and A4. (Original Magnif
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N exist inTable 2 High Fat Diet Feeding and NDEA Treatment Cause Type 2 Diabetes MellitusAssay Body Wt (g) Glucose (mg/dL) Insulin (ng/ml) Leptin Adiponectin Triglyceride (mg/ml) Free Fatty Acids (mM/mg prot) Cholesterol (mg/ml) LFD+VEH 265.100 ?14.050 111.5 ?1.66 0.0611 ?0.017 4.649 ?0.789 20864 ?1454 0.399 ?0.028 0.150 ?0.003 0.943 ?0.024 LFD+NDEA 266.600 ?19.970 128.8* ?4.31 0.163* ?0.038 4.775