1
D. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractBackground: Alveolar macrophages (AM) avidly bind and ingest unopsonized inhaled particles and bacteria through class
1
Helial cells, smooth muscles cells, and activated T-cells, but, interestingly, not na e T-cells. C5aR also activates a number of downstream signaling pathways including PI3K- (Phosophoinosital -3 Kinase), PLC (Phospholipase C), PLD (Phospholipase D), Raf and WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein). As a key modulator of the immune system, complement derived proteins clearly have the capacity to af
1
Ion of immortalized MARCO and SR-AI/II-deficient murine alveolar macrophage cell linesHongwei Zhou1, Amy Imrich1 and Lester Kobzik*1,Address: 1Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA and 2Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Email: Hongwei Zhou - hzhou@hsph.harvard.edu; Amy Imrich -
1
Cell lines from primary alveolar macrophages from MS-/- mice. Results: We used in vitro infection of the primary AMs with the J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. Following initial isolation in media supplemented with murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), we subcloned three AM cell lines, designated ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6. These cell lines grow well in RPMI-1640-10 FB
1
Ovided a very important tool to facilitate biological study of macrophages [20-23]. Several murine macrophage cell lines from bone marrow [24,25], spleen [26,27], fetal liver [28,29], and lung [30] have been successfully obtained by in vitro infection of primary cell cultures with a recombinant J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. In addition, investigation of the function of both
1
Ion of immortalized MARCO and SR-AI/II-deficient murine alveolar macrophage cell linesHongwei Zhou1, Amy Imrich1 and Lester Kobzik*1,Address: 1Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA and 2Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Email: Hongwei Zhou - hzhou@hsph.harvard.edu; Amy Imrich -
1
Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
1
Allele primers, amplifies a 434 bp DNA fragment from SRA-deficient ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 cells. With primers for MARCO wild-type allele, amplifies a 500 bp DNA fragment from WT mice; with primers for MARCO mutant allele, amplifies a 850 bp DNA fragment from ZK cells. ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 clones exhibited both MARCO and SRA-I/II-deficient. PCR products, ca.10 l/each was resolved on a 1.5 agarose gel by gel